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Li — plastic metal of the alkali metal of the silvery-white tint, element 3 in the periodic table of Mendeleev, where has the symbol Li. The atomic weight of 6.9. open Swedish chemist Arfvedson at the beginning of the XIX century in the mineral tenorite. To obtain metal lithium ore is sintered by the method of alkaline oxide and calcium carbonate. After treatment with sulfuric acid, lithium sulfate from the solution leached with soda. The thus obtained lithium carbonate is poorly soluble, so it is transferred to lithium chloride. Pure metal produced by the method of vacuum distillation. Lithium comes in the form of wire, bars, and ingots. Rolled steel is produced by extruding metal through a die in the tub.
Lithium is a very ductile, softer lead. He easily handled the pressure in a cold state. He has the lowest specific weight among other alkali metals, among which it also has a high melting point 180,54°C boiling 1340 °C. the Special properties of this element gives the minimum size of the atom. Lithium with sodium is mixed at t° up to 380 °C and immiscible with molten potassium, rubidium, cesium, unlike other alkaline metals, which are mixed with each other in any proportion. As one of the alkali metals, lithium more than any other stable in the air. It unlike other alkali metals should not be stored in kerosene. It has a property at t°above 100 °C covered with a dense oxide film, which protects it from further oxidation. When heated in oxygen lithium erupts.
Due to the alloying of aluminum with lithium and magnesium the material of high elastic modulus and low density All types of metal and alloy about 1.6% Li — are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In the alloy with sulphide of copper sulfide lithium used as terraelectronica material. This element is also an effective semiconductor. Lithium is used in the composition of the propellant, in the manufacture of lasers, and also for alloying of welding electrodes and nuclear energy. In nonferrous and ferrous metallurgy it is used to improve the ductility and specific strength and metals, as well as for the deoxidation of alloys. Lithium carbonate allows to obtain new alloys with exceptional specific strength.
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