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Samarium (Sm) — light grey dull metal, the 62nd element of the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 150,4. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust up to 8 g/t. Annually produces about 400 tons of the metal. Obtained from monazite sand by an electrolytic or metalloceramics.
In appearance, this metal resembles lead, for mechanical properties — zinc. In air at normal conditions, samarium oxidizes with the formation of amorphous oxide is not completely converted to gray-yellow powder. At high temperature in air to burn. This is a fairly active trivalent metal. Soluble in acids, with nitrogen forms a nitride with a hydrogen — hydride, carbon — carbide, silicon — silicides, etc.
|Physical quality Sm|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||150,4|
|The melting temperature t°C||1074°C|
|The degree of oxidation||3, 2|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||13,3|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||8,9|
Production of thermoelectric and testcustomermap sensors, solid and liquid lasers. Thanks to special technology and performance, samarium widely used modern electrical engineering and nuclear energy. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. Alloy of cobalt and samarium is used to make powerful permanent magnets. With an alloy of hafnium, iron, cobalt, copper, zirconium increases the level of coercive force and residual induction. Definition of samarium in binary alloys normalizes GOST 25278.8−82. Nuclear energy samarium helps to manage radioactive decay. While samarium is not «fade» in the reactor as boron or cadmium, and forms isotopes of a wide cross-section of neutron capture. As an activator of samarium phosphors used in color displays and cellular phones.
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