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Neodymium (Nd) — light silver color plastic metal with a yellowish tint, 60-th element of the periodic table. The atomic weight is about 144. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust up to 8 g/t air oxidizes under normal conditions. Opened in the late nineteenth century, when the Austrian scientists were able to divide the rare earth element Didim, previously considered indivisible metal, praseodymium and neodymium. The word neodymium has Greek roots, translated as «new twin». Industrially it is produced by restoration with calcium or by electrolysis of molten halogen derivatives of this metal. The main reserves of neodymium are concentrated in the United States, Russia, China.
|Physical qualities Nd|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||144|
|The melting temperature t°C||1021°C|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||16,5|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||7,1|
The production of powerful permanent magnets and thermal lasers with a wavelength of about 1 micron. Thanks to special technology and performance, neodymium widely used modern metallurgy and electrical engineering. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. Neodymium is also used in the glass industry. Gives a violet coloration of stained glass. Fluoride NdF3 is used for the production of high quality fiberglass. Nd2О3 oxide with dielectric properties and has low coefficient of thermal expansion. This metal leads to a hardening of thermoelectric materials based on bismuth, antimony, derivatives of selenium and tellurium, increases their thermo-EMF. The metal grinds and hardens the grain when doped alloys. For example, the strength of the titanium when doped with neodymium increased 1.5 times. When alloying aluminum half increases the tensile strength of the alloy and hardness. Salts of neodymium are relevant in agriculture. Treated seeds give them higher yields.
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