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Dysprosium (Dy) — light silver color is a soft metal, the 66th element in the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 162,5. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust up to 5 g/t. most Often it occurs with other lanthanides in apatites. A new element was discovered in the late nineteenth century when spectrum analysis «arnieboy of the earth.» After 20 years, in the beginning of the twentieth century it was isolated in pure form. Today industrially dysprosium are produced by the reduction of its chloride and fluoride salts of calcium, sodium or lithium. The method of determining the percentage of oxides of dysprosium normalizes GOST 23862.13−79.
the basic qualities
Dysprosium retains the hexagonal alpha structure to +1384°C, and further heated becomes cubic β-structure. In air at temperatures up to 100 °C it retains the resistance to oxidation. But upon further heating begins to actively connect with the oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and Halogens. It is easily soluble in mineral acids, but fairly stable in alkalis.
|Physical quality Dy|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||162,5|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|Density [g/cm3]||Of 8.55|
|The melting temperature t°C||1412°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||n/a|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||10,7|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||291|
Thanks to special technology and performance, dysprosium widely used modern metallurgy and nuclear energy. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and to ensure long term reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. The dysprosium alloyed zinc alloys. His addition to the zirconium significantly improves the workability of the alloy and extend the capture cross section for thermal neutrons. In the laser crystals of dysprosium excites thermal radiation with a wavelength of 0,0024 mm. In the processing industry, it serves as an effective catalyst. In nuclear energy use salts of dysprosium for the production of protective coatings and control rods. Alloy of dysprosium, and iron — essential in the powerful magnets.
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